Area: 70 km2
Population: over 320,000
Airport: Tel.: (365) 2235060, 2257383. 10, B.Nakshbandi str.
General Booking Agency: Tel.: (365) 2236522, 2237521. 15, Navio str.
Railway Station: (Kagan town) Tel.: (365) 5273426. 2, Shevchenko str.
Information services of Bukhara
101 - Fires
102 - Police
103 - Fast help
104 - Gaz service
105 - Service of saving
055 - Information service of railway
006, 066 - Information service of airport
007 - Offering of interurban talking
109 - Referral service
Annual average temperature, °С
The historical center of trade and Islamic culture, the city of Bukhara in Uzbekistan is everything one would imagine an ancient oriental fairytale city should be. A trading town on the famous Silk Route, Bukhara is rich in impressive historical landmarks: minarets and madrassahs, fortresses and mosques, narrow streets with numerous teahouses and dynamic oriental bazaars enticing the visitors with their aromas and riot of colours.
Located in the Zerafshan valley, this city has an authentic charm. It was one of the most important cities on the Silk Road where all merchants gathered to sell carpets and jewels. Although Islam arose in another place, Bukhara has seen the development of this religion. The city shelters a hundreds of Islamic schools and as many as mosques and holy tombs.
Featuring on the World Heritage List of UNESCO, Bukhara is the most complete example of a medieval city in Central Asia, with an urban fabric that has remained largely intact. It hosts over 140 historic sites and buildings which date back mostly to the Middle Ages. Among them there unmissable sights, including Ismail Samani Mausoleum, Bolo Hauz Mosque, the Ark, the Poi Kalon ensemble, Chor Minor, the Nadir Divanbegim Madrassah, and once-vast Taqi market complex.
The Ark Citadel (the residence and a citadel of Bukhara's sovereigns) is the most ancient memorial of Bukhara, on archeological matter dated to the 3rd century B.C. The Ark contained the entire city, constructed from yards with state chanceries narrow adjoining to each other, housing of emir, his wives, relatives and dignitaries. The total area of the castle is 34,675 square kilometers.
During its existing, Ark was destroyed repeatedly, but was reconstructed at once by a new governor. The Citadel was reconstructed by Sheybanids governing in the 16th century the shape, which in it was inherited to us and is looking for nowadays. All buildings in the Ark territory for today were constructed and built between the 17th to 20th centuries.
The Mausoleum, which is the family burial of Samanids sovereign's dynasty, corresponds to one of the best architecture samples of the Samanids governing period (875-999).
Samanids Mausoleum's shape is cube covered with a half-sphere dome. The walls inside and outside the Mausoleum are faced with fashioned brickwork from alternate column of horizontal laid bricks and vertical insertion creating the tracery mat motive. Brick rings, lined into the chain, surround the mausoleum's frieze. The Samanids Mausoleum reasonable considered the Middle East an architecture masterpiece.
The Poi Kalan Cathedrai Mosque
The Cathedral Mosque of Bukhara primarily situated near the walls of Bukhara's Citadel and was strongly damaged in 1067 during one of the civil wars. The governor of Bukhara Arslan-khan has removed the mosque far from dangerous place in the 12th century and attached to the Minaret built Mosque, amazed contemporaries by its magnificence. "There wasn't anything of its kind, so workmanlike and beautiful was made" indicates a medieval chronicler. However, this Minaret stayed during a very short period and suddenly came down onto the constructing building of the Mosque, it was strongly damaged. Minaret was built again in 1127.
The Kalyan Minaret is the one of outstanding construction in the nature of things in the Muslim East.
The Minaret's height is 45.3 m, foundation diameter is 9 m. The Minaret is connected to Mosque's roof with a bridge-passage.
There was a bazaar in this place before Arabian conquest, where idols, drug potions, and spices-attorn trade took place. There was also the Moon (Mokh) goddess temple. Later on, the place of this temple was replaced by the construction of the Mosque. The first part of the Mosque title "Magok" means "pit", because it was half hidden by the fast-growing cultural depositions.
In the 12th century the new building was constructed by the same plan, which from in the south was preserved the portal with unique monochrome decor. The building was damaged in the 15th century. The Mosque revival in the place centuries dated back to 1546, due to scripts on the new orient portal, leading to half-underground hall.
On the way to exit from the park, one more Mausoleum Chashma-Ayub (i.e. Spring Jove) was preserved. It is a complicated repeatedly memorial rebuilt during the 14th -15th centuries, it was shaped into oblong prism, crowned by different in shapes domes above rooms of different size and shapes. Sharp, memorable silhouette is configured by double little dome with conical calotte, lifted on cylindrical barrel, marking itself the general room with spring.
Memorial legend is related to Prophet Jove. During droughts or dying from thirsty, local people asked him for water. As soon as he stroked the ground by his crook, the salutary spring appeared which from till nowadays you can drink fresh water.
It is the most ancient madrasah from three madrases, built by Tamerlan's grandson, Ulugbek, the astronomer. It corresponds the rectangular building vith yard and front access door, decorated by high portal peshtak. The entrance bifurcated by crosscut corridor (mionkhona), in one end of which a ectorium (derskhana) was housed, the other end a mosque. There was a ibrary (kitabkhana) situated on the second floor, above the entrance. The racade corresponds with the two-high arcade and has two wings. Two turrets (guldasta) close it from both sides.
Madrasah amazes with exclusive strictness and compliance with constructive part and decoration.
From 4 kilometers up to Bukhara, along the road, leading to Guzhduvan from Samarqand gates side, a magnificent summer palace of last Bukharian emir's dynasty, Sitorai Mokhi Khosa (the castle similar to the Star and Moon) dominates.
First palace constructions were built in the period of emir Nasrullokhan governess (1826-1860).
General constructions of the summer palace were erected in the governess years of Bukharian emir, Mirsaid Alimkhan (1911-1920).
The palace divides into old one and new one. The New palace official reception room resembles the shape of the letter "П".
There is a high terrace, called salomkhona greeting-room on its north side, ziyofatlar zali living-room, kutish zali waiting hall, takhthona-throne room and khazinakhona treasury on its north and east side of palace.
The most popular place of Bukharian is the reservoir Lyaby Khauz (in Khauz), built in 1620 by khan's dignitary Nadir Divan-Begi. The rectangular reservoir (46x36m) is oblong from east to west, and rolls in the shadows of ancient plane trees. Its banks designed with steps, descend into the water. From old there was a "tea bazaar" with sweets, bread, and ready foods trays. People arrived here to listen to "medda" (public reader), and to take part in religious discussions, which were described in "The History of Indian Traveler" of Abd ar-Rauf. Lyaby Khauz ensemble constructed by three monument buildings, the Kukeltash Madrasah in the north, khanaka and Nadir Divan Begi madrasah in the west and in the east.
Behind the Lyabi-Khauz in the northeast part of town, on the opened square there is an extraordinary memorial of the 17th century Chor Minor, Four Minarets. It is a well preserved construction erected from the money of rich Turkmen Khalif Niyaz-Kula. Dating of Madras construction relates to 1807, needs in accuracy, as far as Khalifa Niyaz Kula madrasah, as coming from archive documents already existed in the end of the 17th century.
Construction singularity of Chor-Minor confuses. That's why sometimes Chor-Minor is considered only as lost Madrasah gates. However; by more attentive review, it is visible, that Chor-Minor even in its present condition is a self-sufficient complex, and the building had at least two purposes: ritual and habitable.
One of most ancient Bukhara oasis centers is Paykent town, situated in Zarafshan's lower reach, which appears in the end of the 2nd to 4th centurres BC. Paykent fortress played the great strategy role as frontier and trade point on the Great Silk Road; it connected India, Bactria, and Nashkhab with Khorezm and the North countries. The culmination growth of Paykent falls around the 6th to the 8th centuries AD. Paykent unlike other cities of Central Asia didn't have a governor; it was an original "Merchant republic", which prospered in the silk trade. In the 8th century almost the entire populace of the town was destroyed by nomads, and the town was plundered. After that, it wasn't reconstructed.